THE TOUNGOO KINGDOM (1287 TO 1752)
|1.||The Rise of Toungoo, Pyanchi & Minkyiyo.|
|4.||Successors of Bayinnaung.|
|5.||Events leading to the downfall of the kingdom.|
1. Rise of the Toungoo Kingdom (1287 TO 1531)
Chinese and the Shan invasion in 1287 made many of the Burmese leave their homes around Ava. The unsettled life at Ava forced many to move towards the east along the Sittang Valley. Gradually many more moved to the Sittang Valley, and homes were made around a fort which they later named TOUNGOO. After some time these Burmese settlers united themselves under a chief. In 1368 there arose one of the most powerful chiefs called PYANCHI. He strengthened the unity amongst settlers at Toungoo and left them with a a good system of administration. He is therefore called the FOUNDER of this Kingdom. Pyanehi died in 1377. Another century passed and the kingdom now came to possess additional villages around Toungoo.
Towards 1486 another great chief came to power. He was MINKYIYO. He continued to rule Toungoo till 1531. During his rule he succeeded in building another town close to Toungoo and named it DEYAWADDI. Soon he became a very popular figure in central Burma. The chief of Ava gave his daughter in marriage to him. The princess of Ava brought the Kyaukse district as dowry. This enhanced the popularity and importance of Toungoo.
In 1521 the Sawbwa of Mohnyin captured Ava. Minkyiyo began to fear that his kingdom might also be attacked by the Sawbwa of Ava. He thereupon introduced a very unique method of safeguarding his kingdom. He dug a lake around Toungoo, and devastated all the country lying between Kyaukse and Toungoo. In this manner he succeeded in keeping his kingdom safe from the plundering raids of the Shans. But he had to lose the district of Kyaukse.
Minkyiyo died in 1531. He left his son Tabinshwehti to succeed him. He is remembered as the chief who had enabled the Burmese race to survive at Toungoo.
2. Tabinshwehti (1531 TO 1551)
|3.||His Administration and religion.|
|4.||Falls of the Second Burmese Kingdom.|
1. His Ascendancy
Tabinshwehti was the son of Minkyiyo. He was only fourteen years of age when he ascended the throne. From childhood he had always revealed great interest in fighting. He loved the life of a soldier. He was very ambitious anti soon after his accession he decided to expand his kingdom. He was successful in his attempt and within a few years he was able to establish the Second Burmese Kingdom.
2. His Wars
Tabinshwehti followed a very aggressive policy. He wanted to conquer all the neighboring states in order to establish vast Burmese Kingdom. He withdrew from attacking Ava because he did not wish to wage war with the Sawbwas of the north till he was powerful enough to defeat them. He was much attracted by the prosperous condition of the Pegu Kingdom in the delta. Fortunately for him then the ruler of Pegu was not popular amongst his subjects. As a result there was much disunity amongst the Talaings. Tabinshwehti took advantage of this condition of Pegu Kingdom, and he therefore marched against the Talaings. It was an easy victory for the Burmese forces. The Talaings were defeated and Pegu was annexed. The Talaings acknowledged him as their overlord. In 1541 Pegu became a part of the Toungoo Kingdom. After the lapse of nearly three centuries the Talaings again came under Burmese rule.
Prome: 1542: Tabinshwehti then marched to Prome and defeated the chief in 1542.
Prome also became a vassal state of the Toungoo Kingdom. It was after this victory that Tabinshwehti found himself powerful enough to attack the Shans of the North. He then moved towards Upper Burma.
Pagan: 1544—1546. He marched into Pagan and won again a glorious victory.
The whole of the Delta between Pagan and Prome now fell into the hands of the Burmese.
Coronation: 1546: Tabinshwehti then returned home to his capital. He then held his coronation in accordance with the coronation rites as fixed by the rulers of the Pagan Dynasty. He now included the Talaing customs as well. This made him very popular amongst his Talaing Subjects.
Arakan: 1546—1547. After his coronation Tabinshwehti marched against the Arakanese. He wanted to capture the chief of Arakan as the later had helped the chief of Prome against him. In 1546 he sent his forces to invade Arakan both by land and sea. Talaing officers filled the war-canoes, while the land was swiftly crossed by the Burmese forces. The capital called Mrohaung was surrounded, but the Arakanese refused to surrender. Meantime the Siamese had invaded Lower Burma and the frontiers of the Burmese Kingdom were also frequently attacked. Tabinshwehti was then forced to withdraw his army from Arakan. He rushed down to his capital to save his kingdom from the plundering raids of the Siamese. Then began his siege of Ayuthia the capital of Siam. The Arakan invasion thus proved to be a failure.
First Siege of Ayuthia: 1547—1548: Immediately after his return from Arakan Tabinshwehti took his forces towards Siam via Pegu and Martaban. From Martaban he crossed the Gulf on a bridge made of boats. His forces had the use of ponies and elephants. The cannon were carried ahead close to Tabinshwehti. He also had hired Portuguese soldiers to provide a body-guard. The army then advanced up the ATARAN River through the town called the THREE PAGODAS, and then down the Mekhlaung river to Kanburi. The Burmese then attacked Ayuthia the capital of Siam. The siege was almost a failure, and Tabinshwehti was about to return when fortunately for him the Crown Prince of Siam fell in his hands. Tabinshwehti then kept the Prince as his hostage. He then demanded from the Chief of Siam a safe retreat for his forces. The latter was forced to agree and Tabinshwehti returned to his capital via Rahong.
3. His Administration
Tabinshwehti wanted a united Burma. With his aggressive policy he had successfully established the Second Burmese kingdom stretching from the Tenasserim till Pagan in the north. He now had many crowned rulers under him. He continued the feudal policy of the past Burmese rulers. He allowed the defeated chiefs to continue to rule their respective states, and accepted annual tributes from them. Tabinshwehti was satisfied so far as he was accepted as their OVERLORD by all the rulers. He failed to realize that the integrity of his kingdom depended on a well established centralized system of government. He should have been far-seeing and should have attempted to centralize his government over his kingdom. The feudal system had a disadvantage because in the case of weak successors the kingdom had no safety against rebellions by the vassal rulers. Since the Kingdom lacked such a government it broke immediately after the death of Tabinshwehti 1550.
Tabinshwehti is remembered as the Founder of the Second Burmese Kingdom. He was loved by both his Talaing and Burmese subjects. He became still more popular amongst his Talaing people by accepting their customs. He cut his hair like a Talaing and wore the diadem of a Talaing King. He also appointed Talaings as members of his Council Body.
It is mentioned that closer towards 1550, Tabinshwehti took up the vulgar habit of drinking. He became friendly with a Portuguese officer and gradually began to spend many of his hours in taking drinks. He began to neglect his royal duties. The situation was saved by his foster-brother called Bayinnaung. He was very loyal to Tabinshwehti and so began to manage the royal duties in his brother’s absence. Bayiniaaung was offered the throne by many of the councilors. But he rejected the offer saying that he must remain faithful to Tabinshwehti.
In 1550 the integrity of the kingdom was threatened by a Talaing monk called SMIM HTAW. Bayinnaung left the capital to crush this rebellion. While he was away Tabinshwehti was murdered by some Talaing Officers who had enticed him to a jungle saying that a white elephant had been traced. Soon after 1550 all the subject—states became independent sand Bayinnaung had to take shelter in a forest. Thus ended the Second Burmese Kingdom.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HIS REIGN:
The Second Burmese kingdom was established, though it broke soon after the death of Tabinshwehti.
BAYINNAUNG (1551 TO 1581)
1. His Ascendancy
When his foster—brother Tabinshwehti died in 1550, Bayinnaung became the ruler only in name. He had no kingdom over which to rule. Some of the Talaing Officers, princes and governors, did not actively rebel, while others did. The former group did not help him, while the latter tried to overthrow him. His own brothers and kinsmen and his under lords in Upper Burma, stayed quietly within their own city walls. They were all waiting for his downfall in order to make themselves independent princes and perhaps later to fight out amongst themselves for the kingship in Burma. He had to deal with the Talaing rebellion headed by Smim Htaw and by the leading palace officers. Bayinnaung was at first afraid to fight out the rebels because his army was very small. He was therefore forced to hide in the jungles. His Portuguese friends came to his aid. After sometime many Burmans and Talaings also gathered together to help him. Many still remembered his fidelity to his foster—brother, and now they willingly offered their
assistance to him. With this increasing army Bayinnaung marched against Toungoo first because it was a Burmese principality. He wanted to regain Toungoo as he had many faithful followers here. He was certain that his own people would surely help him to regain his brother’s kingdom. He successfully took Toungoo and then marched ahead to Prorne and annexed it also. Meantime Smim Htaw had raised a very huge rebellion and had made himself the ruler of Pegu. Bayinnaung marched against Smim Htaw as well, and won another brilliant victory over the Talaings Smim Htaw was captured and put to death. Pegu was also annexed. He had no more troubles from the Talaing princes of Wareru’s line as Smim Htaw was the last male descendent, By 1551 Bayinnaung had reconquered all the states which had formed the second Burmese Kingdom under his brother.
2. His Wars
Having reconquered Toungoo Prome and Pegu, Bayinnaung then launched out a series of aggressive wars. Like his foster—brother he also desired to see a United Burma.
Ava 1555 & Shan States: He began his wars in 1555. He turned his attention towards the conquest of Upper Burma. With his large army consisting both of Talaing and Burmese officers, he marched up the Irrawaddy and captured Ava in the same year. Kyaukse was also taken with Ava. After this success at Ava he gradually extended his sway over the Shan principalities of Upper Burma. He then crossed over to the Plateau. One after another the Sawbwas submitted to him. Thus Upper Burma and the Shan States came under his rule by 1555. But his rule over the Shan States was nominal. The Sawbwas paid him tributes now every year. Some paid him in rubies like the state of Momeik while others paid him in silk and gold. In addition abled artisans were also sent to Bayinnaung’s capital. Some of the chiefs even sent their sons to the royal court to be educated as Burmese princes.
1555 to 1563: During this period Lower Burma enjoyed peace. Foreign traders came to the delta ports and settled there. Trade began to flourish because Bayinnaung treated these traders reasonably. He did not tax them with heavy custom duties. Within a few years the Delta was thronged with people whose laughter and merry-makings thrilled the villagers. Soon his capital city was adorned with beautiful houses but Bayinnaung was yet not satisfied with his conquests. He wanted his kingdom to be as prosperous as that of Ayuhia. He was told that the flourishing trade of Ayuthia was due to the four white elephants which the Siamese ruler possessed. Bayinnaung thereupon decided to invade Ayuthia in order to capture one of the white elephants of Ayuthia.
AYUTHIA II SEIGE 1563—64: In 1563 Bayinnaung invaded Ayuthia. His forces captured Kampengpet and Sukhotai, and they entered Ayuthia. Bayinnaung lost many of his soldiers, but he eventually succeeded in reaching the city. The ruler of Siam was taken as prisoner along with the royal family and the nobles of his court. Bayinnaung also captured many of the leading artisans of Ayuthia, and marched them to his capital in Burma. Bayinnaung left Ayuthia in the hands of the Siamese Crown Prince. The latter acknowledged him as his overlord. Three thousand Burmese soldiers and officers were left with the Siamese Prince to see to the administration, and to suppress any likely rebellion. This invasion of Siam is known as the Second Siege of Ayuthia.
Chiengmai: 1566 : In 1566 Bayinnaung had to deal with a rebellion in Chiengmai. While he was busy with his invasion in Siam, the chief of Chiengmai took advantage of his absence from the capital. Bayinnaung hurried back and suppressed the rebellion very harshly. It is said that monks were made to approach Bayinnaung in order to save the lives of many of the leaders.
Ayuthia III Siege 1568-1569: In 1568 the King of Ayuthia became a monk, and Bayinnaung allowed him to go back to his country, because he wanted to worship at Ayuthia. But as soon as he arrived there, he threw off his robes and rebelled against Bayinnaung. The latter then led another big army against the Ayuthians. This time an Ayuthian lord helped the Burmese forces to enter the city. Ayuthia became subject to Burmese rule again. Immediately after the capture of Ayuthia, Bayinnaung had to hurry back to his capital. His absence from the delta brought a few rebellions. He had now to suppress these. These rebellions kept him busy till his death in 1581. Even in this year he was preparing to send an expedition to annex Arakan.
3. His Administration
The Kingdom established was similar to that of his brother. It was also a FEUDAL STATE though it was one of the greatest Burmese Kingdom. He is remembered in Burmese History as the KING OF KINGS, for he had brought the whole of Burma under his rule. He had twenty four crowned heads under his command, who acknowledged him as their overlord. Bayinnaung continued the policy of his brother, so far as these vassal states were concerned. He allowed the subject rulers to rule their respective states and he was content so long as they offered annual tributes to him. Bayinnaung failed to realize the necessity of having a centralized system of government, and as a result he had often to face rebellions from his vassal states, while he was away from his capital.
Bayinnaung introduced many useful REFORMS. He summoned all the distinguished monks of his kingdom and also officials to make an official collection of Law Books. They prescribed Wareru Phammathat and compiled the DAMMATHATKYAW, and KOSAUNGCHOK. The decisions of this court were then collected in the HANTHAWADDY HSTNBYUMASHIN. Pya Hon also tried to introduce weights and measures such as the tical and basket. He suppressed many of the savage customs of the Shans, like offering slaves and animals on the death of a chief. They were offered in order that they may serve their dead lord in the world beyond the grave.
Bayinnaung was a religious and pious ruler, and therefore he wanted to suppress these customs as these were against the preaching given by the Buddhist religion. There was another barbarous habit of offering animals to the Mahagiri Hills. Bayinnaung suppressed this custom as well. Further he ordered that drugs and drinks were not to be used throughout his kingdom, and death penalty was made for all defaulters.
His Religion: Like his forefathers Bayinnaung was also very religious. He built many beautiful temples, the most important was the MAHASEDI TEMPLE at Pegu. Here he enshrined a stone bowl which was presented to him by the Cingalese prince. Many a times during his reign he broke his crown and adorned many of the Pagodas. He also fed the monks and held mass ordinations at the KALYANI THEIN under his supervision. He also distributed copies of the scriptures to the people within his kingdom.
At Shwemaddaw he built many monasteries. Like Anawrahta and Kyanzittha he enshrined the images of himself and of his family and his officers in the Mahasedi Temple at Pegu.
Bayinnauiig also established religious relations with Ceylon. Like the early Pagan rulers he was anxious to have the LORD’S TOOTH at his capital. Towards 1560 the Portuguese attacked Ceylon, and they carried away the TOOTH to Goa. The Burmese then offered much gold and silver to the Portuguese but before the exchange could be made, news reached the Burmese ruler that the TOOTH found its way back to Kandy. But Bayinnaung was now 4etermined to get this TOOTH. The astrologers also predicted that he was destined to marry a Cingalese Princess. He therefore sent his envoys to Ceylon and they spoke at length, about the greatness of their Lord and Master. The ruler of Ceylon had no daughter, and he therefore gave his minister’s daughter and also presented the Lord’s Tooth. The Tooth arrived atl3assein in 176. There was a great procession and Bayinnaung himself led the procession. He carried a beautiful box which was studded with precious stones, in order to receive the TOOTH. The Tooth was deposited in the box and Bayinnaung carried it back to the Mahasedi Temple at Pegu. It was the happiest day for Bayinnaung. He spoke these words – “Heaven is good to me, Anawrahta could only obtain a replica Tooth from Ceylon. Alaungsithu went to China in vain; but I, because of my piety and wisdom I have been granted this.”
Bayinnaung had built a wonderful Kingdom and done much towards its prosperity. Yet inspite of this great work he invited the hatred of his subjects towards the close of his reign. People began to dislike him because of the wars which were the result of his Ayuthian Invasion, and which brought repeated rebellions in his kingdom. He failed to strengthen the integrity of his vast kingdom. His reign was entirely occupied by wars. These wars brought famine and starvation and sorrow and death to many homes. His kingdom had been built at the cost of men’s lives and women’s fears. His great mistake lay in his Ayuthian Invasions. He failed to realize that these took a constant drain of man power. It was a futile attempt to control Siam for it lay at such a great distance. In trying to give prosperity Bayinnaung gave misery and poverty to his subjects. His Ayuthian expeditions had only encouraged rebellions at home and it took the best part of his reign to suppress them.
Bayinnaung died in 1581 at the age of 66. A few years after his death the kingdom broke into petty states and independent princes began to govern them. Bayinnaung was succeeded by his son called Nandabayin.
THE SUCCESSORS OF BAYINNAUNG (1581 TO 1752)
Nandabayin: 1581—1599: He was the son of Bayinnaung. Like his father he had also to face many rebellions before he finally ascended the throne. Even after his accession he was continuously involved in putting down these rebellions. His entire reign was occupied by wars. People were tired of helping, and were afraid of joining his forces. Nandabayin was therefore forced to conscript people from time to time. This step made him very unpopular, and many ran to take shelter in the monasteries.
His Wars: 1584: In this year the Prince of Ava revolted against Nandabayin.
The Ava ruler tried to take the help from the ruler of Chiengmai, and Prome, but he failed in his attempt. The ruler of Toungoo gave the information to Nandabayin. The latter marched upon Ava and annexed it within a short time.
Ayuthia Fourth Sage: 1593: Meanwhile the Ayuthians invaded the Tenasserim. Nandabayin hurriedly marched to the south but before he could attack the Ayuthians, the latter had retreated to their capital and had taken safety there. Nandabayin then reinforced his army and attacked Ayuthia. The Siamese under the leadership of Pra Naret successfully resisted this attack, and within a short time they succeeded in driving out the Burmese forces across the frontiers. In this battle Nandabayin lost his son. He then made his way for his capital. The Ayuthian invasion was a disastrous failure. Lower Burma was now often attacked by the Siamese. But the Burmese ruler made no further attempt to stop these attacks. The condition of the kingdom was daily becoming worse. There was famine and starvation throughout the delta. People began to blame the ruler.
Toungoo: The chief of Toungoo took advantage of this weak condition of the delta. He placed a very rebellion, and invited help from the chief of Arakan. In 1599 the allied forces of Arakan and Toungoo invaded Pegu. Nandahayin was disliked by many because of his policy of conscription. Many deserted him and the Burmese ruler fell in the hands of his enemies. He was executed together with his son. The capital was then thoroughly plundered. The Arakanese carried away 3000 families, a white elephant, 30 bronze images brought from Ayuthia. The King of Arakan also annexed Syriam, and made this an Arakanese possession. He left one of his Portuguese general to see to the administration of Syriam. The ruler of Toungoo took away the Lord’s Tooth, and the begging bowl from the temple at Pegu. He also took much loot from the whole of the delta. Pegu was left thoroughly devastated. Soon after this terrible invasion the delta was again attacked by the Ayuthians. The country was further plundered and Martaban was annexed. After the lapse of few years the chief of Pegu who was also one of the sons of Bayinnaung, entered the delta and re-conquered it. His son Anaukpetlun then succeeded to the throne of Ava and the delta states in 1605.
Anaukpetlun: 1605—1628: He was the grandson of Bayinnaung. Soon after his accession he began a series of wars in order to unite the whole of Burma. He first marched against PROME and successfully annexed it. In 1610 he invaded TCUNGOO and made it a part of his kingdom. The ruler of Toungoo fled to Syriam and took shelter under De Brito the Portuguese governor at Syriam.
Anaukpetlun disliked De Brito’s rule at Syriam. The Portuguese had done much harm to the Pagodas in the delta. De Brito had scraped the gold from the spires of these temples and had often sold these to the pilgrims. In 1613 Anaukpetlun decided to crush the power of De Brito. At first he asked Dc Brito to send back his prisoner, the chief of Toungoo. But the Portuguese Governor refused. Thereupon Anaukpetlun invaded Syriam, and Dc Brito and Natshinnaung the ruler of Toungoo were put to death. The Portuguese settlers at Syriam were sent to Shwebo, and many of these were made regular gunners to serve in the army. These Portuguese later established the BAYINGYI VILLAGES around Shwebo.
Later Anaukpetluri tried to take Tenassarim hut the Ayuthians drove him away. He then took his forces to Chiengmai and Ye in the Moulmein district and annexed both these places.
He gave up his wars in 1619, and then settled to give a good government to his kingdom. He wanted to rule his subject with justice and kindness. He therefore hung a bell with inscriptions in Burmese and Talaing, informing his subject to strike the bell if outside his palace, they had suffered injustice at the hands of his officers. He promised to grant a fair justice to all.
Anaukpetlun is also remembered as MAHA DHAMMARAZA, because he had reunited Burma.
In 1628 he was murdered by his son called Minredeippa.
Minredeippa: 1628: Anaulpetlun had died so suddenly that the whole court was put into confusion. The people soon came to learn of his horrible action. They grew tired of his tyranny and so they invited his uncle THALUN to take the crown. The latter was away in Mandalay trying to suppress a rebellion, Minredeippa, foreseeing. Thalun’s success decided to flee to Arakan. But his own followers caught him as they hated him for his cowardice. Thalun immediately arrived at Pegu and took the throne. Minredeippa was put to death.
THALUN (1628 TO 1648)
1. His Ascendancy
Thalun was the grandson of Bayinnaung. He was the younger brother of Anaukpetlun. Like Bayinnaung he was also a great warrior. During his brother’s reign Thalun served the army. In 1638 when Anaukpetlun was murdered by his son Minredeippa, Thalun was away in Upper Burma suppressing the Shan rebellion.
Within a few months the Councilors at the Capital grew tired of the tyranny practiced by Minredeippa. They invited Thalun to be crowned as the king. While the coronation ceremony was being conducted, a few of the Talaing officers arose to resist, but they were immediately crushed.
Thalun had two sons namely Pindale and Pye. Immediately after his coronation Thalun decided to follow a peaceful policy and thus to devote his entire time in introducing a Centralized system of Government. He ruled nearly for twenty years and within this period the Burmese Kingdom enjoyed peace. Trade flourished and there was prosperity throughout the Kingdom.
Thalun is considered as one of the best statesman of the Toungoo Dynasty. He tried to consolidate his kingdom. He did not run into unnecessary wars when he had a vast kingdom stretching between Ava and Martaban.
He divided his kingdom into a number of villages and districts and introduced DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION. He appointed officers to maintain peace and order in each district. In 1663 he shifted the capital to Ava, because he wanted his capital to be safe from the attacks of the Ayuthians. He wanted to give a central position to his capital. Moreover be wanted to keep his capital close to the rice-granary of Burma in the Kyaukse district. He improved the canals used for irrigation. The families of his prisoners were allowed to settle around the irrigational projects and were given a settled life. The prisoners were also given the opportunity to serve his kingdom by permitting them to join his army. These wise steps of Thalun won him the admiration and loyalty of all his subjects.
In 1638 he held the great REVENUE INQUEST, the first of its kind in Burmese History. Every villager had to swear that he was telling the truth when he stated the number of people in his village, the area of cultivated land, the number of cattle and other animal which each villager owned, the kind of crops grown and the amount of revenue pa.id. He had a very wise minister called KAING SA MANU. The latter helped to compile a new DHAMMATHAAT called the MANUSARASHWEMIN, or MAHARAJA DHAMMATHAI. This was the first law book written in Burmese. It was based on the other law books but it substituted Burmese ideas regarding laws books. The Hindu principles were now removed from the law books. Thalun was also very much interested in erecting Pagodas.
3. His Religion
Like his predecessors he built many temples. But all these were of Cingalese pattern. Thalun’s most important pagoda was the YAZAMANISULA at Sagaing. Here he enshrined the Lord’s TOOTH and the begging bowl which Bayinnaung had received from the Cingalese chief.
Thalun helped the trade of his kingdom as well. He died in 1648 and was succeeded by his son called PINDALE.
PINDALE (1648 TO 1661)
He was the elder son of Thalun. He ascended the throne in 1648 after his father’s death. His capacity for administration was not as great as that of his father. He proved a weak ruler. He tried to follow the system of government as had been placed by Thalun. But unfortunately Pindale failed in giving a settled government, because his kingdom was redeatedly plundered by Chinese soldiers.
Closer to 1658 Yungli the last Ming Emperor was severely defeated by the Manchurians. He fled to Bharno and then asked Pindale to permit him to settle at Ava. The Burmese ruler agreed and Yungli Emperor then went to Ava to settle. With the change in the dynasty in China armies of bandits began to attack the Manchurians. Later they entered Yunnan and then Upper Burma. The bandits even tried to attack Ava, but were unable to capture it because it was a walled town. But the surrounding villages were plundered savagely. Pindale gathered a Talaing army to fight these Chinese bandits. But the Talaings were not interested in the welfare of the Burmese. Many deserted and fled. Pindale then decided to punish the desercers. This brought a Talaing migration into Siam, and many of the Talaing families left the Delta. The whole of the Martaban was entirely depopulated because the Talaings were afraid of Pindale’s vengeance Meantime Kyaukse came in the hands of the Chinese. There resulted a scarcity of rice. The whole kingdom was in misery. A group of officers then invited PYE to become the ruler and thus to save the condition on the Kingdom.
Pindale and his family were drowned in the same year as the court disagreed in having both brothers as their rulers.
PYE (66l TO 1672)
He was a kind-hearted ruler, but he was helpless, because his kingdom was raided in the north by the Chinese and in the south by the Siamese, and by troops from Chiengmai.
During his reign the court began to distrust Yungli emperor and his party who had settled at Ava in Pindale’s time. He therefore tried to scatter the men of Yungli and ordered a few to march to the temple at Sagaing. But the followers of Yungli resisted and Pye then executed all the Chinese settlers except the Emperor. But soon the Manchurians became very strong and with the chief of Yunnan they marched down to Ava and demanded Yungli from the Burmese ruler. The latter agreed and he gave Yungli to the Manchus.
Pye’s reign ended in 1672.
MNREKYAWDIN (1673 TO 1698)
SANEMIN (1698 TO 1714)
TANNGANWE (1714 TO 1763)
The three reigns were uneventful except for occasional rebellions and frontier raids. Apart from these there were fresh developments in the trade relations with the foreign countries. Trade missions and embassies were repeatedly received by the Burmese ruler. Towards 1657 the Dutch East India COMPANY closed their branch because of the unsteady conditions in the delta. The English East India Company continued to retain their branch at Syriam and at Ava. Towards 1677 the English closed their trade because the custom duties were increased by Minrekyawdin. Moreover whenever a ship was wrecked on the coast of the delta, the Burmese ruler seized all the cargo without delay. Minrekyawdin did not like this sudden withdrawal of the English. In 1692 he ordered his officers to seize one of the English ships, and to retain her until the English agreed to open their trade again. In 1709 fresh trade relations were established.
Sanemin was now the ruler. The trade was much improved. The next ruler also took great interest in the trade of the Kingdom.
MAHADAMMAYAZA DPATI (1733 TO 1752)
He was the last ruler of the Toungoo Dynasty Dipati was a weak ruler. Soon after his accession the Manipuris had begun to attack the districts at Ava. In 1738 they raided all the countries up till Ava and carried away much loot. The kingdom was much weakened Dipati failed to command his forces. He distrusted commanders when they happened to fail in war.
The Talaings heard of the king’s weak abilities and the unpleasant conditions he had created around him at the capital by his harsh treatment given to his commanders and officers. They found a leader in SMIM HTAW BUDDITAKATI. He was a monk. Slowly the Talaings conquered the delta. Closer to 1752 they successfully invaded Ava and imprisoned the Burmese ruler and his family. Thus ended the reign of Dipati.
The Talaings now ruled Ava, the Delta and Tenasserim. They did not go ahead because they feared that the Ayuthians might invade the Tenasserim in order to crush their power.
The Third Burmese Kingdom thus ended in 1752 leaving the Talaings powerful in all the places below Shwebo. Here they had to face an army under Alaungpaya. The latter was the son of the Myothugyi of Shwebo. He refused to submit to the Talaings. He gathered a good number of followers and saved the Burmese of Shwebo from falling in the hands of the Talaing. The Burmese subjects were thus saved from Talaing rule. Alaungpaya later established the FOURTH BURMESE KINGDOM.
QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER V.
|1.||Give an account of Toungoo before Tabinshwehti ascended the throne.|
|2.||Describe briefly the reign of Tabinshwehti.|
|3.||Who was the Founder of the Second Burmese Kingdom? Describe his administrative policy and give its results?|
|4.||“Tabinshwehti was a great conqueror” Explain.|
|5.||Bayinnaung is remembered as the king of kings” Comment on this statement.|
|6.||What did Bayinnaung do for the Buddhist religion?|
|7.||Give a details account of the wars of Bayinnaung. What were the results of his war policy? |
|8.||Write all you know about the two invasions of Ayuthia under Bayinnaung.|
|9.||Give an account of the reign of Thalun.|
|10.||Write short notes on the following :—De Brito Smin Htaw Buddhaketi, Pundle, Nandabayin, Anaukpetlun, Pye, Mahadammayaza Dipati.|
|Date: 5/12/2018 1:30:38 AM|
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|Date: 11/25/2015 6:12:53 AM|
The animation support in the Toolkit is more than just a control. It's a pluggable,
extensible framework for easily adding animation effects to your web pages. The
sample below demonstrates a composite animation consisting of four primary animation
actions, done in parallel: Move (to move the panel to its final location) Resize
(to change the size of the panel) Fade (to fade the text in/out) Color (the flyout
changes from gray to white and the text pulses red)